Mediaș is located in the middle basin of Târnava Mare River, at 39km from Sighișoara and 41km from Blaj. The health resort Bazna, officially recognized for the first time in 1302, is 18km from Mediaș. The health resort offers mineral water springs, rich in salts, mineral mud and a special type of salt, called "Bazna salt". The distance between Mediaș and the county's residence Sibiu is 55km.
The city administers one village, Ighișu Nou (Eibesdorf; Szászivánfalva).
The first signs of human communities in the area are thought to be from the middle Neolithic period.
In the 13th century, the kings of Hungary invited German settlers known as Transylvanian Saxons to the area, who settled in the valley of the Târnava Mare River.
According to the tradition, the town was founded in 1146, being so one of the oldest cities in Transilvania.
Land in the area was sold and settled soon after William Penn was named proprietor of the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681 by King Charles II of England. Peter and Wiliam Taylor bought the land where Media is now located, directly from Penn. At the time, the land was located in Chester County. Providence Township was organized in 1684, and divided into Upper Providence and Nether Providence townships by 1690, even though they only had 40 taxable properties at the time. The current borough, formed in 1850, sits between the two townships.